Ocean Protection

“Thank you for contacting me about ocean protection.


I have a select committee on 23rd October, but I plan to attend the High Seas Alliance and Great Blue Ocean’s reception if I am able to do so.


The UK is a global leader in protecting our seas, the ocean and marine life, and works with counterparts both in the UK and overseas to help achieve these aims.


I welcome that a deal to protect nature was agreed by almost 200 countries at COP15 in December 2022. This agreement includes a global commitment to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 and also to protect 30 per cent of land and oceans by 2030. I understand that nearly 8.3 per cent of the global ocean is protected. The UK has been leading the way and announced nearly £30 million to support developing countries in delivering the 30by30 target. I am also aware that in March, UN Member States agreed the High Seas Treaty, which aims to help place 30 per cent of the seas into protected areas by 2030. 


I am aware that at the 2022 United Nations Ocean Conference, the UK, US and Canada launched the Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Action Alliance, which brings together state and non-state actors to tackle the illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Through committing to implement international agreements, promote active monitoring, control and surveillance, and encourage transparency and data sharing, this alliance is growing and has welcomed several new countries to its membership.In addition, the Government has pledged funding to support marine protection, ocean research and activities to combat illegal fishing. These investments will bolster initiatives aimed at conserving our oceans and ensuring their long-term sustainability by allocating resources to these critical areas.


Invasive species are recognised as one of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity worldwide, second only to habitat loss, and cost the UK economy £120 million a year. I am aware of research led by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas) which, by adapting a model originally designed to predict the distribution of oil following a spill, was able to uncover the origin of floating marine debris and track how invasive species enter UK waters. It is hoped that this new modelling technique will enable the UK and other countries to more accurately track the movements of floating debris and help establish an early warning system to prevent and respond to any emerging threat of non-native species.


With 80 per cent of marine debris made up of marine plastics, and over 800 million tonnes of plastic ending up in our oceans each year, this research reiterates the importance of tackling global plastic pollution, supporting calls from the UK at COP15 last year for greater ambition and support to protect 30 per cent of the world’s ocean by 2030.


Further, 374 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) protect 38 per cent of UK waters, which are all subject to planning and licensing regimes to ensure they are protected from harmful activities. The Government’s Environmental Improvement Plan (EIP) sets the country on a path to deliver an improved marine environment and halt the decline in biodiversity which benefits us all. As set out in the EIP, the Government has a statutory target to have 70 per cent of designated features in MPAs in a favourable condition by 2042, with the remainder in a recovering condition. The first three Highly Protected Marine Areas (HPMAs) have now come into force. These are areas of the sea that will allow for the highest level of protection in our waters and full recovery of marine ecosystems and will exclude all fishing. For HPMAs to be successful, the Government will work with the fishing industry, other marine industries and sea users in designating, managing and monitoring them. 


I chair the All Party Parliamentary Group for the Ocean, and you might be interested to know that as chair, I recently wrote to the FCDO regarding the UK’s ratification of the BBNJ Agreement (the Agreement under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea on the Conservation and Sustainable use of Marine Biological Diversity of Areas beyond National Jurisdiction). This Agreement was laid before Parliament on 17th October 2023. Primary legislation is required before the UK is in a position to ratify the Agreement, due to be brought in in 2025.


Thank you again for taking the time to contact me.


Yours sincerely,


Sally-Ann Hart MP.”